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30. Chinatown – A Chinatown is an ethnic enclave of Chinese or Han people located outside mainland China or Taiwan, most often in an urban setting. Areas known as Chinatown exist throughout the world, including Asia, Australasia, the development of most Chinatowns typically resulted from mass migration to an area with zero or very few Chinese residents. Binondo in Manila, established in 1594, is recognised as the worlds oldest Chinatown, a more modern example, in Montville, Connecticut, was caused by the displacement of Chinese workers in New Yorks Chinatown in Manhattan following the September 11th attacks in 2001. The Oxford Dictionary defines Chinatown as, a district of any non-Chinese town, especially a city or seaport, in which the population is predominantly of Chinese origin. However, some Chinatowns may have little to do with China, some Vietnamese enclaves are in fact a citys second Chinatown, and some Chinatowns are in fact pan-Asian, meaning they could also be counted as a Koreatown or Little India. One example includes Asiatown in Cleveland, Ohio and it was initially referred to as a Chinatown but was subsequently renamed due to the influx of non-Chinese Asian Americans who opened businesses there. Today the district acts as a factor for the Chinese, Taiwanese, Korean, Japanese, Filipino, Indian, Vietnamese, Cambodian, Laotian, Nepalese. As isolated from the population as Hispanics. This contrasts with narrower definitions, where the only described Chinatown in a city setting. In some cities in Spain, the term denotes an area, neighborhood or district where prostitution or other related to the sex industry are concentrated. Some examples of this are the Chinatown of Salamanca and the Chinatown of Barcelona, trading centres populated predominantly by Chinese men and their native spouses have long existed throughout Southeast Asia. Emigration to other parts of the world from China accelerated in the 1860s with the signing of the Treaty of Peking, early emigrants came primarily from the coastal provinces of Guangdong and Fujian in southeastern China – where the people generally speak Cantonese, Hakka, Teochew and Hokkien. As conditions in China have improved in recent decades, many Chinatowns have lost their initial mission, as net migration slows, the smaller Chinatowns have slowly decayed, often to the point of becoming purely historical and no longer serving as ethnic enclaves. Binondos Chinatown located in Manila, Philippines is the oldest Chinatown in the world, several Asian Chinatowns, although not yet called by that name, have a long history. Those in Nagasaki, Japan, Binondo in Manila, Hoi An, glodok, the Chinese quarter of Jakarta, Indonesia, dates to 1740. Chinese presence in India dates back to the 5th century AD, a Chinatown first appeared in the Indian city of Calcutta and subsequently in Mumbai and Chennai. The first Chinese settler in Calcutta was Young Atchew around 1780, the Chinatown centered on Yaowarat Road in Bangkok, Thailand, was founded at the same time as the city itself, in 1782. Many Chinese immigrants arrived in Liverpool in the late 1850s in the employ of the Blue Funnel Shipping Line, the commercial shipping line created strong trade links between the cities of Shanghai, Hong Kong and Liverpool, mainly in the importation of silk, cotton and tea.
31. River Valley, Singapore – River Valley is a planning area located within the Central Area of the Central Region of Singapore. The planning area shares boundaries with Orchard in the north, Museum in the east, Tanglin in the west, in the 1840s, there were two River Valley roads that ran on either side of the Singapore River. The Singapore River was seen as a valley between Fort Canning Hill, to the side of the river, and Pearls Hill. The roads on either bank of the Singapore River were named River Valley Road — the current River Valley Road, both these River Valley roads were present in John Turnbull Thomsons 1844 map. One of the first residents to move into the River Valley district was Dr Thomas Oxley, in 1827, he bought land here from the East India Company and established Killiney Estate as a nutmeg plantation. He had Killiney House built as his residence, the road nearby was named Oxley Road after the surgeon. When the plantation closed, he sold the land in several lots, River Valley Road was once part of Dr Oxleys estate before being divided up in the 1860s. Killiney House was a villa built on land behind the eventual site of the Chesed-El Synagogue. This house was bought by Manasseh Meyer who renamed it Belle Vue. River Valley was especially popular with the Straits Chinese who also built villas in the area, among the wealthy who had homes here was Tan Jiak Kim, the grandson of Tan Kim Seng, who built himself a mansion in the 1860s and named it Panglima Prang. He also paid for the construction of the road came to be named after him — Kim Seng Road. Another wealthy merchant who lived in the area was Lee Cheng Yan, the road Cheng Yan Place is named after him. Most of the big mansions along River Valley have since been demolished, the one surviving villa is the traditional Chinese house built by a wealthy merchant, Tan Yeok Nee, in 1885. This house, House of Tan Yeok Nee, is now a national monument. Kal alei, meaning stone crusher, is the name given by the Tamils to River Valley Road, from the steam crusher which was kept at the corner of Tank Road. The Chinese have two other interpretations — ong ke sua kha in Hokkien, meaning foot of Fort Canning Hill, or leng thau che, the latter interpretation could refer to the spring on the hill and the waterfall from it. The ice works belonged to Hoo Ah Kay, which were demolished in 1981, the residential areas within River Valley consist mainly of private property for the middle and high income sections of the population. River Valley is also a popular eating spot for Singaporeans, a famous local eating place here is a Hainanese chicken rice shop named Boon Tong Kee.