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Malut bagaikan bumi pilihan alam semesta. Fenomena alam yang sangat langka memilih Tidore sebagai salah satu singgasana persinggahan. Gerhana Matahari Total (GMT). Ya, fenomena yang luar biasa ini sempat menjadi perhatian dunia pada tahun 2016 lalu. Hanya terjadi di beberapa daerah, salah satunya Malut.
Bahkan, Putri Raja Thailand, Maha Chakri Sirindhorn, memilih Malut sebagai tempat menyaksikan fenomena alam nan langka tersebut. Padahal, ada dua tempat lainnya yang menjadi titik persinggahan GMT.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The artificial island was constructed in 1634 on orders of shogun Iemitsu, originally to accommodate Portuguese merchants living in Nagasaki. But after an uprising of the predominantly Christian population in the Shimabara-Amakusa region the Tokugawa government decided to expel all Catholic Western nationals except the Dutch employees of the Dutch East India Company ( Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie , VOC).
Since 1609 the Dutch had run a trading post on the island of Hirado. At its maximum the Hirado trading post covered a large area. [ 1 ] In 1637 and 1639 stone warehouses were constructed within the ambit of this Hirado trading post. Christian era year dates were used on the stonework of the new warehouses.
Without the annual Portuguese ships from Macao the economy of Nagasaki suffered heavily. Government officials, who were looking for means to relocate the Dutch trading post, forced the Dutch to move from Hirado to Dejima. [ 2 ]
From 1641 on, only Chinese and Dutch ships were allowed to come to Japan.
On the administrative level the island of Dejima was part of the city of Nagasaki. The 25 local Japanese families that owned the real estate received an annual rent from the Dutch. Dejima was a small island, 120 by 75 meters, [ 3 ] linked to the mainland by a small bridge, guarded on both sides, and with a gate on the Dutch side. It contained houses for about twenty Dutchmen, warehouses, and accommodation for Japanese officials. The Dutch were watched by a number of Japanese officials, gatekeepers, night watchmen, and a supervisor ( otona ) with about fifty subordinates. There were a number of merchants for supplies and catering and about 150 tsuji (“interpreters”). They all had to be paid by the VOC . Like the city of Nagasaki Dejima was under direct supervision of Edo by a governor ( Nagasaki bugyo ).
Every Dutch ship that arrived in Dejima was inspected, and sails were seized until that ship was set to leave. Religious books and weapons were sealed and confiscated. No religious services were allowed on the island.
Despite the financial burden of the isolated outpost on Dejima, the trade with Japan was very profitable for the VOC , initially yielding profits of 50% or more. Trade declined in the 18th century, as only two ships per year were allowed to dock at Dejima. After the bankruptcy of the VOC in 1795, the Dutch government took over exchange with Japan. Times were especially hard when the Netherlands (then called the Batavian Republic) was under French Napoleonic rule and all ties with the homeland were severed. For a while Dejima remained the only place in the world where the Dutch flag was flown.
The chief VOC official in Japan was called the Opperhoofd by the Dutch, or Kapitan (from Portuguese capitao ) by the Japanese. This descriptive title did not change when the island’s trading fell under Dutch state authority. Throughout these years, the plan was to have one incumbent per year—but sometimes plans needed to be flexible.
Originally, the Dutch mainly traded in silk, cotton, materia medica from China and India, but sugar became more important later. Also, deer pelts and shark skin were transported to Japan from Taiwan, as well as books, scientific instruments and many other rarities from Europe. In return, the Dutch traders bought Japanese copper, silver, camphor, porcelain, lacquer ware and even rice.
To this was added the personal trade of VOC employees on Dejima which was an important source of income. More than 10,000 foreign books on various scientific subjects were thus sold to the Japanese from the end of the 18th to the early 19th century, thus becoming the central factor of the Rangaku movement, or Dutch studies.
In all, 606 Dutch ships arrived at Dejima during two centuries of settlement, from 1641 to 1847.
The first period, from 1641 to 1671, was rather free, and saw an average of 7 Dutch ships every year (12 perished in this period). From 1671 to 1715, about 5 Dutch ships were allowed to visit Dejima every year. From 1715, only 2 ships were permitted every year, which was reduced to 1 ship in 1790, and again increased to 2 ships in 1799. During the Napoleonic wars, in which the Netherlands was occupied by and a satellite of France, Dutch ships could not safely reach Japan in the face of British opposition, so they instead relied on “neutral” American and Danish ships. (Interestingly, when the Netherlands was made a province by France (1811–1814), and Britain conquered Dutch colonial possessions in Asia, Dejima remained for four years the only place in the world where the free Dutch flag was still flying, under the leadership of Hendrik Doeff.) After the liberation of the Netherlands in 1815, regular traffic was reestablished.


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